Agricultural development programmes inevitably result in complex ecological changes. Monitoring environmental impact of such activities is a demanding and increasingly important task for scientists in developing countries and few texts exist that provide useful guidance. This handbook is the result of practical experience in several tsetse control programmes in Africa. It deals with all aspects of monitoring insecticide use and impact, including methods for examining effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and provides useful discussions of wider aspects of risk assessment and evaluation. The information is provided together with a treatment of the necessary background on tsetse biology and control.